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       Chapter IV: Land Use Policies, Capital City District

Urban Open Space and Recreation

This is a menu of the topics on this page (click on any): URBAN OPEN SPACE AND RECREATION General Description    General Policies    TANU Cell Open Area Description    Policies    Community Park and Walkway System Description    Policies    Recreation Park Description    Open Space Core Description    Policies    Special Open Spaces Description    Policies   .

URBAN OPEN SPACE AND RECREATION

General Description

The Capital City's open spaces are intended to perform a number of functions

  • recreation, agriculture, the conservation of soil and vegetation, drainage and storage of rain water, and the creation of some of the characteristics of the country into the city. The Future Land Use Plan includes a comprehensive system of interconnected open spaces. This includes:

    General Policies

    with the Plan, making the best possible use of the natural characteristics of the land and vegetation, the open creek and river beds and the dominant topographic features.

    Landscaping will play an important role in creating a satisfactory living environment. Roads, pedestrian routes and open space areas should be carefully landscaped; in general, not less than one tree per dwelling unit should be provided elsewhere within the neighbourhood.

    Until such time as areas are needed for recreation facilities, small-scale agriculture should be carried out as at present.

    The urban open space should provide formal and informal recreation space and sites for schools. Except where organized games are proposed, extensive tree planting programmes should be initiated, using indigenous vegetation types.

    Flat areas should be retained for football and other sports activities. Extensive planting should be provided to give shade and to minimize the effects of wind.

    Special attention should be paid to all dry sites so that succulents and other hardy plants can survive and maintain a measure of greenery and shade. The use of timber, stones, boulders, and sands after the traditions of Spain, Mexico and Japan should be exercised and developed into a form and context appropriate to Tanzania.

    In association with the residential areas, shambas should be made available to individuals, so that at least half the families in a given area can plant their own maize and vegetables in the rainy season. Shade and screen planting will be important and irrigation water should be made available where this can be economically justified.

    Recreation Park Areas should be kept free of urban development, but certain uses may be introduced which will not detract from the visual aspect of the programme. Such uses might include vineyards, demonstration farms, a golf course, institutional uses in large grounds, reforestation, conservation measures for soil and wildlife and certain recreational uses. Buildings related to these uses may be appropriate, but special care must be exercised in their design and location, to minimize their effect on the amenity of the area. Special care will also be necessary regarding the design and location of roads through these areas and in the location of essential utilities, such as power transmission lines.

    Provision should be made in designing the residential communities for small shambas within the residential areas. Also, small gardens should be provided in all areas of mass produced, lowincome housing. Larger shamba areas are envisaged in the Recreation Open Space corridors, separating the residential communities.

    In certain areas stream valleys should be dammed and the water impounded to provide amenity and improve irrigation systems within a local area.

    These small reservoirs will assist in minimizing erosion and eliminate the need for oversized pipes and drainage channels at the lower end of a catchment area. Water levels can, in some instances, be maintained during the dry season by local ground water bore holes with simple pumping systems discharging to the lake or artificial ponds created. Water features can play a most important role in this dry climate particularly in enabling surrounding vegetation to stay green longer than might otherwise be the case. The problems associated with insect control measures, which will be necessary in this connection, can be more than justified by the benefits gained. Individual sites should be examined on their merits and careful engineering studies should be carried out to determine practical and economical methods of all forms of water conservation use and re-use.

    Following are the specific descriptions and policies for each of these open space types.

    TANU Cell Open Area

    Description

    This is a small open area, defined by the house plots of a TANU housing cell, where the residents can meet and relax. At least one shade tree should be planted in it, and its other treatment and facilities should be decided upon by the cell residents.

    Policies

    The TANU cell open area should not be less than 400 square metres. It should be connected by walkways to the nearest street and to the neighbourhood walkway and park system.

    Community Park and Walkway System

    Description

    Each residential community will include sports and playfields, neighbourhood parks and sharnbas, interconnected by walkways and bicycle ways.

    Policies

    In each neighbourhood, the sports and playfields, a park and shambas should be adjacent or closely related to the primary school. They should be

    graded, landscaped and provided with equipment and facilities appropriate for their respective functions.

    The community centre should also include these open spaces, related to the post-primary educational facility.

    All open spaces in the neighbourhoods and the community centre should be completely interconnected by walkways and bicycle ways. These should in addition extend throughout the neighbourhood, so that every housing group has direct access to the system.

    Wherever feasible, the open space and walkway/ bicycle way system should incorporate the area's natural drainage courses.

    Recreation Park

    Description

    Recreation Park open space will surround each residential community and separate it from adjacent communities and other land uses. It will essentially remain in its present form and will serve to permit the "country" to penetrate into the city.

    The recreation park areas will include shambas and gardens, and it will provide opportunities for all kinds of more or less informal recreation.

    Policies

    In addition to the General Policies for open space outlined above, the Recreation Park area should gradually be improved by tree planting and grass seeding. Walkways and bicycle ways should be constructed through the areas, to interconnect the neighbourhood systems.

    Open Space Core

    Description

    The Open Space Core, forms a large central park in the city, running from the north-east to the south-west, and embracing Imagi Hill. Included in its northern end is the proposed location for the Saba Saba Grounds and a site for a large stadium and exhibition grounds immediately east of the A centre. Towards its south-western end, the Open Space Core opens out into a broad expanse, approximately two kilometres wide, which provides a large catchment area for the Mkalama and Biringi reservoirs.

    The part of the Open Space Core to the northeast of Imagi will be a general recreational area, with walkways, look-outs and a variety of facilities.

    Towards the east, the Core embraces the TANU and Parliament Complex. This should be landscaped with extensive tree-planting to create a setting for this important feature of the Capital. Adjacent to the ministry offices, on the Processional Way, the Core will include a Commemorative Park.

    Policies

    A detailed long-range development plan should be prepared for the total Open Space Core area which should incorporate the uses described above. The area to the south-west of Imagi should generally remain undeveloped and retained as a water catchment area. It should be reforested for this purpose.

    Special Open Spaces

    Description

    Three Special Open Space areas are shown on the Future Land Use Plan; a botanical garden (137 ha), a National Cemetery (138 ha), and a Central Cemetery (35 ha). The botanical garden and the National Cemetery are located immediately south of Itega. The central cemetery is located north of Morogoro Road and east of the Saba Saba grounds.

    The botanical garden site contains good soil, and water for irrigation is available. It also provides a transition zone at the western side of the city, from rural land uses to urban areas. The site is well located with respect to the proposed university, which could very well use its facilities in research programmes related to experimental vegetation species.

    Policies

    A detailed plan should be made for the botanical garden site which should include an area of about 40 hectares for a landscape nursery.

    Sites for cemeteries should be reasonably flat and well drained and should be screened and landscaped as appropriate, and be located in quiet areas.



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    Copyright: Project Planning Associates Limited, Toronto, Canada, directed by Mr. Macklin Hancock and recipient "The Government of Tanzania, Capital Development Authority under the auspices of Mr. George Kahama.".