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       Chapter IV: Land Use Policies, Capital City District

Residential — Communities and Neighbourhoods

This is a menu of the topics on this page (click on any): RESIDENTIAL — COMMUNITIES AND NEIGHBOURHOODS Description    Policies    Housing    Schools and Open Space    Neighbourhood Shops    Neighbourhood Roads and Bicycle Ways    Utilities and Street Furniture   .

RESIDENTIAL — COMMUNITIES AND NEIGHBOURHOODS

Description

The residential component of the city is arranged in a series of residential communities, except in and immediately adjacent to the existing town of Dodoma, and on the north slope of Itega, south of the industrial area. Each such community consists of four neighbourhoods, surrounding a community centre. In the area immediately surrounding the existing town, it will not be possible to create prototypical residential communities, but the residential land in this area should nevertheless be developed in accordance with the neighbourhood principles outlined below.

All residential land shown on the Future Land Use Plan should be developed in the form of neighbourhoods. Each neighbourhood should include all types of housing, ranging from detached dwellings to flats, or apartment buildings, so that all income and social groups of the population can be accommodated. Every neighbourhood should also contain primary schools and nurseries; shambas, parks, playgrounds and other recreational facilities; libraries, religious and other community buildings; small shops and similar uses serving purely local needs.

Arterial and major collector roads and the busway route should not pass through a neighbourhood, but should instead define its boundaries, together with major open space areas. Each neighbourhood should have a minor collector road, which connects with the peripheral major collector. Local neighbourhood streets and culde- sacs, leading from the minor collector, should provide access to the residential plots.

The neighbourhood should contain an extensive system of walkways and bicycle ways leading from each group of dwellings to the public neighbourhood facilities and the community centre.

Policies

Neighbourhoods should be designed to accommodate an average of 7,000 residents. Wherever feasible, four neighbourhoods should be grouped around a C Centre creating a residential community of 28,000 inhabitants. The radius of the total community should be about 1 km, so that the maximum walking distance from any dwelling to the community centre does not exceed about 10 minutes.

The residential communities should be so designed and have such facilities and amenities that they function as a large village or small town. It must be an environment with a human scale and character with which its inhabitants can identify themselves, in which they feel they belong. The houses and housing groups, the neighbourhood school, the shops and the community centre should be reminiscent of the traditional Tanzanian villages and should not take on the characteristics of a big, impersonal city. When one walks through the neighbourhood, one should have the feeling of passing through a series of smaller and larger spaces, defined by houses and landscaping. One should get frequent glimpses of the open spaces outside the community and one should feel that the rural land is always close by. The walker should also frequently be able to see the prominent landscape features in and around the city; the remarkable inselbergs, the hills and the great plains. The walkways and the streets should be so oriented that one will obtain these views between the buildings and trees.

Housing

The net density of each neighbourhood should be about 30 dwelling units per hectare. This, however, is an average and the actual density in the different parts of the neighbourhood may range from 5 to 60 dwelling units per hectare. About 80% of all dwellings in each neighbourhood should consist of 1 or 2 storey buildings, most of which should be in the form of detached, semidetached or rowhousing units. The flats or apartment buildings should generally not exceed 3 storeys and should be located near the community centre.

All plots occupied by dwellings should either front directly onto a street or on a public walkway. Where they front on a walkway, they should nevertheless be located close enough to a street to be readily accessible to emergency and maintenance vehicles and the residents' private cars.

figure6 The dwellings should be set back sufficiently from adjacent streets, walkways and other public areas, to ensure privacy and to provide land for landscaping adjacent to the building. Each dwelling should also have an open area on its own plot for the family's private outdoor use.

All dwellings should be connected to the city's piped water supply and sewerage systems. They should also be located to ensure adequate drainage of rain water away from the building, towards the neighbourhood's drainage system, without discharging onto a neighbour's plot.

Dwellings should be grouped together in accordance with the TANU cell principle, so that about 10 units surround a small open area where social interaction can take place. Each such open area should contain at least one tree.

The garden of each dwelling should also be provided with at least one tree. And the buildings should be located and oriented, so as to ensure climatic protection and ventilation, reasonable privacy and so that an attractive as well as a functional residential environment will be created.

Housing in the existing town of Dodoma and its expansion areas should be developed in accordance with the same policies outlined above. However, three areas are specifically proposed for apartment-type buildings:

Schools and Open Space

Each neighbourhood should contain three primary school sites, together with nursery facilities. One of these sites should function as a Community Education Centre, with sufficient land set aside for the school and nursery, as well as an assembly hall, a clinic, a library, a TANU branch office, a small workshop and sports club.

Each of the school sites should also include a sports and play area, shambas and a sitting/study area.

The neighbourhood's school sites, recreational open space, shambas and walkways should be designed as a comprehensive system, in which each component is linked with all the others. Children should be able to walk from their homes to school and adults to the community centre, through safe and pleasantly landscaped open areas.

Neighbourhood Shops

Small shops or dukas should be located in the neighbourhoods for the convenience of their residents. One such site should be allocated for about every 70 dwelling units. They should generally be located on a street, and should also be directly accessible via the walkway system.

Neighbourhood Roads and Bicycle Ways

The design of the city in general, and of the neighbourhoods in particular, should be such that private automobiles are quite unnecessary, because the alternative means of movement will be entirely convenient, attractive and economical. This should result in a residential environment which is essentially free from the hazards, costs, noise and air pollution, and undesirable visual characteristics, which are so common in cities where the car has become a dominant intrusion in every aspect of people's life.

Each neighbourhood should, however, contain a comprehensive road system to accommodate service and maintenance vehicles, as well as the cars of those residents who still prefer to use them.

All through-traffic major collector and arterial roads should be kept strictly on the periphery of the neighbourhood. Each neighbourhood should have a single, looped minor collector street (25 m right-of-way), with the primary function of bringing vehicles to the different sectors of the neighbourhood. From this collector, residential loop streets and cul-de-sacs (minimum 12.5 m right-of-way) should provide access to the plots and blocks.

Utilities and Street Furniture

All parts of the neighbourhood should be provided with electricity, street lights and street signs. While these should be of economical construction, they should be designed and located with care to minimize their adverse visual effect on the environment.

If the residents should not have their own appropriate receptacles for household and other refuse, public receptacles should be provided. These should be located at frequent intervals along the streets, suitably screened from view by fences and/or vegetation, to be emptied into the city's refuse collection trucks.



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Copyright: Project Planning Associates Limited, Toronto, Canada, directed by Mr. Macklin Hancock and recipient "The Government of Tanzania, Capital Development Authority under the auspices of Mr. George Kahama.".