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Plan for the New Capital of Tanzania

Introduction

This is a menu of the topics on this page (click on any): Background    Terms of Reference    Methodology and Programme of Work    Interim Plan    Site Selection and Urban Concept Design    Draft Master Plan    International Advisory Panel Review    Presidential Review    Urban Renewal Scheme    Technical Supplements    Draft Master Plan Report    Contents of the Master Plan Report and Other Documentation    Building Guidelines    Development Procedures    Zoning and Development Regulations    Competition Conditions   .

Background

In October of 1973, Dr. Julius K. Nyerere, President of the United Republic of Tanzania, announced that the National Capital would be transferred from Dar es Salaam to Dodoma, some 490 kilometres to the west, near the geographic centre of the country. The reasons for this decision were many and complex, but among the most important factors was that the move is expected to generate significant social and economic benefits for the people of the central region, a relatively under-developed area characterized by periodic droughts, soil erosion and subsistence farming, but also by centrality and good access in the national context, a pleasant climate and a unique natural landscape.

Immediately after the President's announcement, the Capital Development Authority, the agency charged with the responsibility of building the new Capital City, began the process of establishing its own staff in the existing town of Dodoma. The Authority also decided that it required the services of a consultant to assist in the design of the Capital's Master Plan. Early in 1974 and after having considered the proposals from several other international consulting organizations, the Authority appointed Project Planning Associates Limited of Toronto, Canada, as the firm most suited to assist the Authority in its work. In March 1974 the Consultant's staff began work in Dodoma.

Terms of Reference

The Terms of Reference for the preparation of the Capital City Master Plan for Dodoma are contained in the Agreement between the Capital Development Authority and Project Planning Associates Limited, dated August 1, 1974. They comprise three main parts, namely Objectives, Scope of Work, and Work Programme.

The Objectives for the Study, which are outlined in considerable detail in the Agreement, can be summarized as follows:

Dodoma, as a National Capital City, should be a symbol of Tanzania's social, economic and cultural values and aspirations. It should also be an efficient and satisfying place to carry on the political, legislative, cultural, administrative and commercial business of the country and must be strategically situated.

The Master Plan should aim at a Capital, the administrative, economic and political functions of which are supplemented by a diversified industrial and commercial base which should ensure a variety of employment for its population. The economic base should be part of the master planning programme from the earliest stages.

The Capital City shall demonstrate a high quality in its human settlement, incorporating the highest environmental standards and should in effect be a pilot study demonstrating the best possible housing and urban living conditions for central Tanzania. The city must provide its residents with a good quality of life and it should be an agreeable and acceptable human settlement, an emerging inland metropolis and a gracefully modern and functional Capital. Therefore, the city shall avoid the mistakes of colonial planning which are evident in Tanzania's present towns. Also, it shall avoid the mistakes of overcrowding, pollution, traffic congestion and long journeys to work, which are commonly found in the old cities of the industrialized countries.

In addition to the main objectives outlined above, the Consultants were asked to apply the most modern techniques and principles in planning and developing the Capital. More specifically, this included:

The Scope of Work for the study included the following: The Work Programme for the study was broken into five main parts, namely: The time for completion of the Work Programme was twelve months with a proviso for extension at the request of either party, provided that the extension of time requested was caused by reasons beyond the control of the requesting party.

The Agreement further stipulated that the master plan should be submitted for Government approval in three stages:

Preliminary master plan alternative concepts to see how the planning objectives had been accommodated, and to select the best alternative; draft master plan; and final master plan.

Methodology and Programme of Work

From March until November, 1974 all the work on the Master Plan took place in Dodoma. The Consultant's planning and design team was located in the Capital Development Authority's Dodoma offices, to ensure maximum liaison and cooperation with the Authority's Planning Director and his staff.

The Consultant's staff and their sub-consultants, working in Dodoma, included urban and regional planners, urban designers, architects, municipal services and urban transportation engineers, landscape architects and resource planners, a soils expert, social planners and economists, a graphic designer, and experts in air and rail transportation. After the on-site work in Dodoma was completed, the team returned to the Consultant's home office in Toronto, where it was augmented by additional professional and technical personnel to prepare the draft reports and graphics. While the work proceeded in Toronto during 1975, one or more members of the Consultant's staff were almost continuously in Dodoma to maintain close liaison and to prepare additional on-site work.

Interim Plan

The first task consisted of the preparation of an Interim Plan for the existing town of Dodoma. Although the actual site for the new Capital City had not yet been selected, it was clear that the town would experience significant development in the form of new Government offices and housing. Control of this development was essential in advance of the completion of the final plans.

The Interim Plan consisted of plans establishing land uses, housing plots, areas of offices and community facilities, roads and other urban elements. In addition, Interim Zoning and Development Regulations were prepared. The Interim Plan and Development Regulations were completed by the Consultants during a six-week period and were adopted in May, 1974. They will remain in force until the final Master Plan and Zoning and Development Regulations have been adopted by the Government.

Site Selection and Urban Concept Design

An area of 6475 square kilometres (2500 square miles), extending 40 km (25 miles) to the north, south, east and west from Dodoma, was designated as the Study Area for site selection purposes of the new Capital City. Upon a preliminary examination of the Study Area, six potential sites for the city were identified for further analysis. Three of these sites were eliminated for a variety of reasons as being unsuitable and the remaining three sites — the area adjacent to the existing town, the area between the Luaha and Ngongonha Rivers overlooking Ihumwa, and the Hombolo area — were subjected to detailed evaluations. Factors such as soils, topography, vegetation, climate, water supply, accessibility and development costs were thoroughly analysed. For each of the three sites, conceptual Capital City plans were prepared.

During the preparation of the conceptual plans, study visits were made by the Consultants and representatives of the Authority to other African cities and communities. These studies included Mwadui, a planned Tanzanian town, to learn what had been accomplished in its planning, development and management. Capital and other cities, and advanced new communities elsewhere in the world were also researched in detail, to determine their characteristics in terms of layout, urban growth systems and the usefulness of modern technology, and to avoid errors in design and implementation.

In the process of site selection and concept design, the Consultant also carefully evaluated the many other aspects of urban and regional planning. Tanzania's social structure was examined to determine the characteristics of lifestyles, as well as the community and family structures. Demographic data were compiled and analysed for the purposes of establishing population composition and projections. Tanzanian and African housing was studied in terms of the family's way of life and how house design relates to it. Economic analyses were carried out with respect to resources, employment, migration and socio-economic patterns. Extensive studies were also carried out with respect to the Capital City's Impact Region, with the objective of ensuring that the Capital City plan would be entirely integrated with the eventual regional development plan and programme.

An urban concept, consisting of tiers of communities, organized around a busway system, with decentralized employment and industrial areas and a strong open space system was developed for each of the three sites. The cost of building the Capital at each site was estimated. Finally, the three sites and the respective concepts were examined in a data matrix to determine the optimum choice on the basis of a detailed evaluation of all the salient factors.

In September of 1974 the Consultants presented their work with respect to site selection and the urban concept. At this presentation, the site adjoining the town of Dodoma was recommended by the Consultant and a preliminary plan for the Capital's urban form on this site was submitted. The Board of Directors of the Capital Development Authority approved the work of the Consultant and the Capital Development Authority's staff, and in October of 1974, the President viewed the proposals and put his seal of approval on the site selected.

Draft Master Plan

Between November 1974 and February 1975 a draft Master Plan and supporting plans, excluding the written report, were prepared, based on the approved concept. This included the urban and rural Future Land Use Plans, the Outline Regional Strategy, the Transportation and Servicing Plans, a detailed plan of the Kikuyu Residential Community, the detailed First Stage Land Use Plan and other supporting material.

The draft Master Plan was submitted to the Board of Directors of the Capital Development Authority, and subsequently approved, in February of 1975.

International Advisory Panel Review

In February 1975 an International Advisory Panel was brought together by the United Nations Environment Programme, to review the draft plans in Dodoma. The Panel was under the Chairmanship of Sir John Overall, formerly Commissioner of the National Capital Development Commission of Australia. It was comprised of experts from Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe and North America. Key representatives of several Tanzanian Ministries attended the meetings.

This Panel reviewed the plans for the new Capital City and it generally concluded that the work was proceeding well and the plans were appropriate, A number of constructive comments were made, some of which were subsequently incorporated in the plans. It was clear, however, that those living in a capitalist, industrialized milieu could not entirely appreciate the social and economic constraints involved in a plan for an African socialist environment. The Tanzanian experts voiced their satisfaction over the approach taken by the Consultant and the Authority's staff, particularly in relation to a critical comment raised as to the social direction and level of aspiration inherent in the Plan.

Presidential Review

The President was at this point again acquainted with the position of the planning programme and the draft Master Plan, including the Five Year Development Plan. He expressed his opinion that the plan had been prepared so that it related in the closest way to the Government's policies and the aspirations of the Tanzanian people, and subsequently approved it.

Urban Renewal Scheme

Next, a detailed urban renewal scheme was prepared by the Consultant for the existing town of Dodoma. This incorporated road realignments, the creation of neighbourhood units and open space, and established the important first elements and image of the central part of the Capital City.

Technical Supplements

During the various activities since January of 1975, the Consultant's staff drafted seven Technical Supplements. These describe in detail the various technical studies, researches, analyses, design standards, proposals and plans on which the Master Plan is based. These were submitted to the Authority's staff for comment and subsequent approval.

Draft Master Plan Report

In September of 1975 the Consultant submitted a draft of the Master Plan report to the Capital Development Authority's Board of Directors and the staff. Their valued comments and constructive criticisms have been incorporated in this report.

Contents of the Master Plan Report and Other Documentation

This report contains the bases, the proposed plans and policies, and the recommendations for implementation for the Capital City and its immediate rural surroundings, which taken together, comprise the Capital City District (Urban). For a complete understanding of all the details of the proposals, the following Technical Supplements, consisting of separate reports, should be referred to:

TS1 — Background Planning Studies

TS2 — Natural Resources

TS3 — Traffic and Transportation

TS4 — City Form and Content

TS5 — Public Services

TS6 — Regional Study; a Statement of Potential

TS7 — Capital Development Programme

The following is a brief outline of the contents of the Master Plan report:

Chapter I describes the framework within which the Capital is to be developed — the land of Tanzania, its people and its political structure.

Chapter II describes the overali physical design of the city and its region. It is intended to give the reader a knowledge of the city's major components and design criteria, followed by an overview of the total concept applied to the Dodoma site.

Chapter III sets out the major factors or parameters upon which the Plan is based, as well as the general policies which should guide its implementation.

Chapter IV establishes the specific policies with respect to each land use element of the city and the rural areas included in the Capital City District (Urban). Each land use area, shown on the Future Land Use Plans, is first defined in terms of the types of specific urban or rural uses to be permitted in the area. In other words, it determines what elements may be included in each area, all other uses being prohibited. Secondly, it sets out the specific policies which should guide the detailed design and implementation of every part of the Master Plan. Chapter IV is one of the major policy statements of the Master Plan and should be adopted as the principal basis for detailed design and implementation. The Zoning and Development Regulations are based on these policies.

Chapter V outlines the policies with respect to housing and the basis upon which they were made.

Chapter VI describes the urban renewal plan for the existing town of Dodoma, which will ensure that this area will be improved in relation to the building of the new city.

Chapter VII describes in detail the capital image and urban design features particularly with regard to the National Capital Structure, the central part of the Capital, extending from the TANU Headquarters and Parliament Complex in the east, via the central grovernment office, commercial and cultural area, to the University in the west. It describes the urban design, architectural and landscape considerations upon which this important part of the Capital Master Plan are based.

Chapter VIII outlines the recommended strategy for the development of the region which will most experience the direct impact of the new Capital.

Chapter IX sketches the major economic situation of Tanzania and the economic implications of building the Capital City at Dodoma.

Chapter X recommends the means by which the Master Plan should be implemented.

In addition to the Master Plan report and the seven Technical Supplements, the Consultant also prepared the following documents:

Building Guidelines

This is a detailed outline of the design standards, together with their bases, which should be applied to all buildings to be constructed in the Capital. It pertains to the architectural designs of individual buildings and building groupings, site plan design, and the relationships between buildings and the land and climate.

Development Procedures

This summarizes the process involved in planning, designing and constructing individual building projects in the Capital. It describes each of the major steps in sequence and establishes the respective roles and responsibilities of the builder, the architect or engineer and the Capital Development Authority staff.

Zoning and Development Regulations

These are the regulations with which all new development in the Capital City District (Urban) must comply. Upon adoption by the Government this will become a statutory document.

Competition Conditions

Draft conditions for single-stage architectural competitions were developed which could form a basis for the numerous architectural competitions expected during the development of the Capital City. The single-stage competition format seemed the most appropriate for Dodoma as it permits adaptation for international competitions, and those limited to East Africa, Tanzania or individual firms. Architectural competitions are expected for a number of major ministry buildings.

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 Home   E-Mail   Page Top    
index    Drawings    Whats New    Web Links    Site Map    Site Map Tree    AllPages    Foreword    Preface    Acknowledgements    Introduction    Chapter I: The Capital in its Regional and National Setting    Chapter II: A Concept for the National Capital    Chapter III: The Purpose, Bases and General Development Policies of the Master Plan    Chapter IV: Land Use Policies, Capital City District (Urban)    Chapter V: Housing Policy    Chapter VI: Urban Renewal in Dodoma    Chapter VII: Capital Image and Urban Design    Chapter VIII: Development of the Impact Region    Chapter IX: Economic Aspects of Capital City Development    Chapter X: Implementation    Appendices    Data    Amendments to the Master Plan    MSTrQ
Copyright: Project Planning Associates Limited, Toronto, Canada, directed by Mr. Macklin Hancock and recipient "The Government of Tanzania, Capital Development Authority under the auspices of Mr. George Kahama.".