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       Chapter X: Implementation

Administration

This is a menu of the topics on this page (click on any): ADMINISTRATION    Zoning and Development Regulations    Building Code or By-law    Building Guidelines    Development Procedures    Building and Development Inspection   .

ADMINISTRATION

The Capital Development Authority, as the primary implementing agency, should approve the Master Plan and recommend its adoption by the Government. Once this has occurred, the plan will embody the overall policy framework within which all future development in the Capital City District (Urban) should take place. Even though the Master Plan contains a certain degree of flexibility to accommodate currently unforeseen requirements, it may from time to time be necessary to consider revisions; should these be decided upon, the CDA should prepare an amendment to the Master Plan and recommend it for adoption by the Minister.

The CDA's staff, with the assistance of consultants and international agencies, must prepare the majority of the necessary detailed plans, designs and programmes. It must also control and coordinate all development and building carried out by others, within the framework of the relevant legislation. And finally, the CDA itself has to undertake a large proportion of the actual construction and operational programmes of the city building process.

The primary development control instruments, which should be administered by the CDA, are the Zoning and Development Regulations, the Building Code or By-law, the Building Guidelines, the Development Guidelines and, of course, the Master Plan itself, together with its supporting documentation.

Zoning and Development Regulations

The Master Plan contains the policies for the development of the Capital City District (Urban). The Zoning and Development Regulations contain the detailed regulations to which all development must conform in order to implement the Master Plan.

Upon approval, the Zoning and Development Regulations should be adopted under the provisions of Section 78 of the Town and Country Planning Ordinance. This document will have the force of law behind it and should be strictly enforced on a day-to-day basis; no plans for the development of land or the construction of buildings within the Capital City District (Urban) may be permitted to occur which do not conform to the Regulations.

The Regulations formally establish the uses which are permitted in each area or Use'Zone, the bulk and height of buildings, the space about buildings, the public services and roads to be provided, and matters such as parking and open space requirements. They include written regulations for each Use Zone, as well as Map Schedules indicating the boundary of all zones.

At least two such Map Schedules should be prepared. One to cover the entire Capital City District (Urban); the second pertaining to the first stage area of the city itself, e.g., the area to be developed between 1975 and 1980. The city's land area which will be developed in subsequent stages, including the long-range urban expansion area established in the Master Plan, should be designated as a Holding Zone. The only permitted uses in a Holding Zone are those which currently exist, and agricultural and conservation uses; however, no new buildings or structures should be permitted in this zone.

When the first stage of development of the city comes close to completion, the zoning Map Schedule for the area of the second implementation stage should be changed in accordance with the plans for that stage. This changed schedule should be incorporated as an amendment into the original Zoning and Development Regulations.

From time to time, the Zoning and Development Regulations will require other amendments as well, to meet new requirements. A procedure should be developed to prepare and adopt such amendments. However, every amendment should strictly adhere to the policies, proposals and intent of the Master Plan, because the Regulations must never be allowed to supersede the Plan. In addition, amendments should also conform to the Building Guidelines.

Building Code or By-law

The Building Code or By-law should regulate the design and construction of all buildings and structures. A National Building Code is being prepared by Ardhi and it is anticipated that it will be adopted for use in the Capital City District (Urban). Once adopted, the Code is a legal document and no construction which does not conform to it must be allowed to occur.

The Code will establish minimum design and construction standards, in terms of materials, construction methods, building and room dimensions, means of ventilation, architectural and engineering design of the building, etc. Generally, the Code is intended to ensure that minimum standards of building quality, safety, health and convenience are achieved for any building or structure erected in the Capital City District (Urban).

Building Guidelines

The Building Guidelines contain a description of the design criteria, methodology and objectives on which the design of every building in the National Capital should be based. They were prepared in conjunction with the Master Plan and should have the effect of implementing its intent in terms of building design, the location of buildings and their orientation with respect to the land and climate, the relationships among the buildings in a group and between the buildings and landscape features. In particular, the Building Guidelines should assist in achieving the special urban design features which should make the city the National Capital.

As opposed to the Zoning and Development Regulations and the Building Code, the Building Guidelines are not legally binding; they represent recommendations on the basis of which architects and designers, and the authorities charged with the responsibility of evaluation and approval of plans, should approach their respective tasks. But notwithstanding their relatively informal status, they should be regarded as one of the most important aids to bring the design philosophies and proposals of the Master Plan to reality. It is only with a thorough understanding of these factors that the qualities which the people of Tanzania expect of their National Capital will be realized. As a consequence, the Building Guidelines should not only be used in the design and evaluation of buildings, but they should also be the basis for the detailed design and construction of neighbourhoods, communities and industrial and commercial areas, building site plans, landscaping programmes, road layouts and engineering works.

Development Procedures

This is the document which describes the process of planning, design, approval, construction and inspection of individual projects, to implement the Master Plan. As is the case with the Building Guidelines, it also has an informal, rather than a legal status. It explains the sequence of steps involved in the process and the reasons for them. It outlines the types and standards of the plans required to obtain development, building and occupancy approvals and permits, the bases for evaluation and the respective tasks of the owner and his architect or engineer, the Capital Development Authority and the builders.

The Capital Development Authority should ensure that everyone involved in the design and building process is made aware of all the requirements. To this end the Development Guidelines should be produced in a form which can be distributed widely among the technical participants in the process.

The Capital Development Authority should adopt the policy that all applications for land development and building construction should be accompanied by a predetermined set of plans and other information. This material should adequately show such matters as the location of the proposed project, the nature of the land, the street lines and plot boundaries, existing and proposed engineering services, the architectural design of the buildings, the site plan, etc.

Once a land subdivision plan has been approved, all the street lines and plot boundaries should be surveyed and staked out in the field, in such a way that those involved in the construction of houses and other structures can clearly determine the corners of their plots and locate their buildings accordingly. Notwithstanding this approach, some builders, who are not entirely familiar with technical plans and surveys, will undoubtedly experience difficulty in recognizing the specific plot on which to erect their building.

To ensure that this problem is minimized and that future street right-of-ways will not be encroached upon, the Capital Development Authority should consider a policy, whereby a least rough grading of a street should take place immediately after it has been surveyed and before any building construction is allowed to start. In this way, the builders and inspectors will have a ready reference for the location of their buildings in terms of the distance from the centre line and corners of the street.

Building and Development Inspection

The Capital Development Authority should appoint a team of building and development inspectors, whose duty it will be to ensure that all construction takes place in accordance with the approved plans and regulations. They should make frequent inspection tours throughout the Capital City District (Urban) in general and the city in particular. They should not only inspect construction projects, but should also patrol other areas to prevent illegal development.

The inspection function should not purely be regarded as a form of law enforcement alone, but rather as a positive contribution to the implementation of the Master Plan. The inspectors should not simply record illegal development and cause it to cease; they should be able to assist builders and individuals to accomplish correct development. They should be trained to explain and interpret plans and regulations, to advise people about the procedures they should follow and to help them achieve what is best in their own and the community's interest. The inspectors should be regarded as members of the planning team, with the particular function of being a link between the policy makers and designers, and the people who are actually building the city.



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Copyright: Project Planning Associates Limited, Toronto, Canada, directed by Mr. Macklin Hancock and recipient "The Government of Tanzania, Capital Development Authority under the auspices of Mr. George Kahama.".