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       Chapter II: A Concept for the National Capital

Design Criteria and Major Components of the Urban Concept

This is a menu of the topics on this page (click on any): DESIGN CRITERIA AND MAJOR COMPONENTS OF THE URBAN CONCEPT Introduction    The City's Design Criteria and Major Components Population Estimates    Housing    Employment    Accommodation of Government Buildings    Urban Centres    Schools and Other Community Facilities    Transportation within Dodoma    Road System    Regional Transportation Facilities    Open Space System    Water Supply and Other Public Utilities    Summary    The Residential Community Prototype   .

DESIGN CRITERIA AND MAJOR COMPONENTS OF THE URBAN CONCEPT

Introduction

A city is an agglomeration of buildings, streets and parks and a capital city is, in addition, a special arrangement of these elements in a significant manner which symbolizes the health and vigour of the nation.

The new National Capital will have four principal land use elements: residential areas; commercial areas, including shopping; industrial areas; and areas devoted to government buildings. A fifth element will be open space (parks and recreational areas), which will be woven throughout all the main urban areas, to link them together and yet separate them as a contrast to the bricks and mortar of the city's environment. All the principal use areas must be appropriately tied together, so that people can move from one part of the city to another to shop, to work, to go to school and to play. They must be linked together by roads and pedestrian ways, and by public transit routes to allow for the movements which are necessary in modem society.

The principal objective of preparing the Master Plan of the National Capital is to determine the requirements of each land use and infrastructural component and to arrange them into the most appropriate pattern on the land. The design must be functional, economical, sensitive to the natural environment, befitting the social and cultural structure of the nation, and above all, it must meet the requirements, philosophies and aspirations of the present and future generations of Tanzanians.

In the following pages, each of the components of the new city is examined. Firstly, the projections of future population and employment are dealt with to determine the scale of the city. Secondly, the many different physical elements are analysed to establish their individual requirements and design standards. The following Section, The Urban Concept, then describes the physical concept of the city followed by an outline of the Regional Development Concept.

The subsequent chapters of this report establish the general and specific policies which should guide the detailed design and implementation of each component.

The City's Design Criteria and Major Components

Population Estimates

One of the key factors in the future growth of population of Dodoma will be the rate at which civil servants will move from Dar es Salaam. It is estimated that a total of over 12,500 civil servants will be involved, over a ten year period, and that during the first five years, i.e. from 1975 to 1980, 5000 of these will move to Dodoma.1 Using these figures as a basis, the population for Dodoma for the next ten years is calculated as follows;

      Existing Dodoma population            45,000

 +  5 years growth at 6% per annum      15,000

 +  Ministry staff and dependents

     (5,000 x 4.5 persons per family)       22,500

 -  30% other workers* at 6 persons

per family (30% of 5,000 X 6)                 9,000

     Total population,1980                       91,500

 + 5 years growth at 6%                         31,000

 + additional ministry staff and dependents

     (7,500 x 4,5)                                     34,000

+ 30% other workers* at 6 persons per family

(30% x 7,500 x 6)                                  13,500

Total population, 1985                         170,000

*Based on the assumption that sufficient additional workers will be available to serve the community from the existing population base, plus people living in the Region and community.

For the period after 1985, a range of population projections were examined. Growth rates of 3%, 6% and 10% were analysed and compared with the growth rates for the country as a whole, and for urban areas, as well as with growth rates of capital cities in other developing nations. Government policy with regard to decentralization was also taken into consideration as a major factor.

A continuing annual population growth rate of 6% was finally accepted as realistic. This resulted in the following five-year incremental

'Government of Tanzania, Report on the Proposed Move of the Capital from Dar es Salaam to Dodoma, 1972, Table F1. Based on Table F1, it is estimated that by 1975, the total number of civil servants involved wili be about 12,500. The 5000 figure comes from Capital Development Authority, Capital Development Programme, First Five Years 1975-80, Board Paper No. 2/1975 {Revised March, 1975).

2See Technical Supplement 1, Background Planning Studies, Chapter III, for a more detailed explanation of this population estimate.

population growth estimates for the Capital City from 1985 onwards:

1985-170,000

01990 — 227,500

01995-304,400

02000 — 407,400

02005 — 545,150

02010 — 729,500

02015 — 975,250

02020 — 1,306,450

After preliminary analyses and consultations with the Capital Development Authority, it was decided that two target populations would be used for planning purposes. The first, a target of 350,000 persons, is based on a preliminary examination of the area immediately around Dodoma, and the population it could contain, based on acceptable density levels and reasonable infrastructure costs. Based on the 5year estimates shown above, it is anticipated that this target population of 350,000 will be reached sometime between 1995 and 2000, an overall time span which relates to the traditional twenty year planning period.

The possibility of population growth beyond 350,000 was recognized and for this purpose, a second target of 1,000,000 persons was chosen to indicate a long range growth strategy and to identify the areas that should be reserved for future urban expansion. It should be noted that it has been recognized that after the twenty year period, 1975-1995, further decentralization of government and economic acitivites may occur in Tanzania and the rate of population growth for the Capital may well drop below the 6% per annum level. However, the main purpose here is to ensure that no matter what happens, sufficient land will be reserved for long-range growth requirements.

Housing

An estimate of housing requirements, based on the above population assumptions and estimates, is as follows:

— by 1980; the population of Dodoma is estimated to be 91,500 including:

— 22,500 civil servants and dependents at 4.5 persons per family = 5,000 dwelling units required;

24,000 other population1 at 6.0 persons per family = 4,000 dwelling units required;

— by 1980 a total of 9,000 new dwelling units will be required, or an average of 1,800 units per year.

— by 1985; the population of Dodoma is estimated to be 170,000. Additional population (1980-1985) is composed of:

— 34,000 civil servants and dependents at 4.5 persons per family = 7500 units required.

— 44,500 other population1 at 6.0 persons per family = 7416 units required.

— between 1980 and 1985 an additional 14,916 units will be required, or an average of 2980 per year.

The above figures indicate the current estimates of new dwelling units that will be required during the first ten year period only. These estimates will, however, need continuous review and adjustment in relation to actual and projected population estimates as the new city develops.

Studies of house types, densities and plot sizes for the Capital have been carried out and are presented in Technical Supplement 4. Much of this work is based on two premises; firstly, that the density of residential areas should be as high as possible, within the constraints of the lifestyles of the people for which they are designed; and secondly, residential densities should allow optimum use of the city's building land and thereby maintain the length of services and other infrastructure within economical units. As a result, a recommended average net residential density of 152 persons per hectare (30 units per hectare) was arrived at for residential neighbourhoods, with minimum plot sizes of 288m2 for self-help, co-operative and site and service schemes, and 144m2 for government-built groups of detached or terraced housing. Further, a high proportion of group housing types is recommended, because of the efficiencies of closer spacing and reduction of infrastructure costs, without reducing amenity. The principle of group housing is also easily adaptable to the TANU system of 10 houses to a cell, whereby people meet and know each other, and share the responsibility of resolving each other's problems at a grass-roots level.

The system and density pattern is not rigid, but represents a mix as shown in Table 1.

'Includes natural population increase and service population.

Table 1

Recommended Housing Densities for a Typical Neighbourhood

% Density (units per hectare) Units Total Area of Plots (ha)
20 60 280 4.66
30 40 420 10.50
40 30 560 18.66
5 20 70 3.50
5 10 70 7.00
Totals   1400 44.32

*This includes some Special type housing units. The above figures include plots with private open space as well as the small communal spaces of the 10-unit cells. The figure of 44.32 was rounded upwards to 46 ha to permit some flexibility of layout.

The recommended percentages shown above were established for the first ten years of the move of the Capital. In order to achieve the rapid development expected, most construction will be carried out by the CDA or other parastatals. Housing will be essentially row housing in 10 unit cells at a density of 30 or more units per hectare. The above table shows 70%. This permits economic and rapid construction by major organizations or co-operatives.

Private development in detached housing units is not precluded, but its contribution to the move of the Capital is not expected to be large. Over time, in the light of experience, the split of development can be reassessed and the private sector be given more prominence and land area, should this be considered appropriate. Within the land area constraints of each neighbourhood the number in detached units at 20 units per hectare can be increased to 10% or 15% of the total (instead of the 5% shown) by reductions in other sections. This would make up to 20% available for detached private development.

Typical areas for house types constructed by government agencies in Dodoma were established in consultation with CDA. These are shown below as Table 2.

These areas relate solely to the house types provided by CDA or parastatals for civil servants in the course of the move from Dar es Salaam and do not affect private development which would be limited solely by zoning regulations in terms of area.

Table 2

Comworks and Revised Standards for Housing Units in Dodoma

Type Comworks Standard Revised Standard % of Total
sq.ft. m 2 sq. ft. m 2
Special 2200 205 2200 205 1
1 1700 158 1700 158 4
II 1200 112 1050 98 15
III 900 84 800 75 60
IV 700 65 600 56 20
Average Area of all Houses 910 88.57 848.50 79.27 100

Source: Project Planning Associates Limited based on paper by Government of Tanzania, Proposed Move of the Capital from Dar es Salaam to Dodoma.

Employment

Estimates of future employment opportunities sare based on the premise that a 30% %employment factor (i.e. the number of persons semployed is 30% of the total population) is a areasonable and feasible target to aim for. .Comparative work-force-to-population ratios are:

Kaduna .33

3Nairobi .39

9Dar es Salaam .25

5Canberra .49

9Ottawa .45

5Washington .42

2Warsaw .48

These figures indicate that in developing gcountries, the work-force-to-population ratio for rcapital cities is about 1 to 3, while in developed dcountries, it is about 1 to 1.8. It would seem mreasonable to expect, therefore, that in Dodoma, ,the work force will tend to be somewhere in the eneighbourhood of 30%, or one worker for every ythree persons. For each family of 4.5 persons, ,this means that 1.5 workers would be available. .In terms of a population of 350,000 persons, this smeans a total work force of 105,000. Of these, it tis estimated that about 29,500 will be employed din the manufacturing/primary and construction/ /transportation and utilities sectors. Based on an naverage density of 60 workers per hectare, the eland area required for industrial purposes for a population of 350,000 persons will, therefore, be in the neighbourhood of 500 hectares.'

Accommodation of Government Buildings

One of the most important land uses in the new capital will be the Central Government. Not only will the space requirements be considerable, but specific locations for special buildings will need to be selected with care. Existing topographic features, proposed traffic systems and the overall land use structure must be considered.

Most government ministries will require a central location, and the buildings should be in close proximity to one another for efficiency of operation. The actual location and grouping of all Ministries must be worked out by the Capital Development Authority, in co-operation with the Ministries, on the basis of the phasing of the move and the individual location requirements. This is part of the implementation process and will require considerable attention during the first five years.

Some Ministries or their departments may have large space requirements for vehicle storage and maintenance, or for other forms of outside storage; these would be more appropriately placed in warehouse or individual areas. Some examples are Works, Landsurvey, and Water Development and Power.

In addition to the ministries, certain other government and related uses and activities must be provided for. Specifically, these will include:

TANU Party Headquarters and Parliament. These important buildings should be located on a prominent site, with sufficient land for expansion and landscaping. A hilltop site or a site of historic significance would be most appropriate.

Institutional Uses. Many institutional functions, such as hospitals, clinics and a military academy will have to be located in the Capital.

Cultural Facilities. Sites will be required for a religious centre, an arts and local crafts centre, and a new university. Because of its importance and large area requirements, the university could

See Technical Supplement 1, Chapter IV, and Technical Supplement 4, Chapter IX for further detaiis.

2For list see Glossary.

be used as a major feature in the overall city design structure.

Embassies and other Diplomatic Missions. The Capital will attract a multitude of foreign government embassies and related uses. Special areas should be set aside for these facilities, in suitably prominent locations.

Places of Public Assembly. This will include formal open spaces within the city centre, as well as large recreation and ceremonial grounds, such as a Saba Saba site and a site for a National Stadium.

Ceremonial Roads. Certain roads, particularly those connecting major Government areas, should be designated as special ceremonial roads or processional ways. These should be wide and well landscaped to provide suitable routes for special processions and parades.

Urban Centres

The objectives of creating a convenient and an economically and functionally efficient city demand that the commercial, industrial, governmental and community facilities be concentrated in a hierarchy of urban centres, each of which has a specific function to perform. These centres not only ensure convenience and efficiency; they also play a major role in the creation of urban form and the making of a distinctive and dynamic city. The public and commercial buildings tend to be relatively large and can be separated from each other by landscaped spaces; this provides opportunities to create the centres as important urban design nodes. They thus become both visual and functional focal points in the city.

Three major types of urban centres have been designated:

The community centres in the middle of each residential community, which contain a market, shops, services, offices, local employment facilities, and educational and other institutional establishments; they are referred to as C centres. Each C centre serves each community population of approximately 28,000 persons.

The sub-centres, with major employment facilities, institutions and shopping, serving groups of three, four, or five communities, depending on location and accessibility. They are referred to as B centres.

The National Capital Centre, with the principal office buildings and commercial establishments; it is the downtown area which serves the city, the surrounding region and the nation as a whole; it is referred to as the A centre.

The community centres, or C centres, are located in the middle of each residential community, within a walking distance of one kilometre from the farthest dwelling. They serve all the community's day-to-day needs, making it unnecessary for many of the residents to leave their community except for special and relatively infrequent purposes. The C centre is also a major link between the communities and other parts of the city, because it contains the busway stop and because the community's internal road system connects it, via the centre, with the city's arterial roads. In fact, the C centre can be likened to the downtown area of a small town.

The sub-centres, or B centres, are primarily employment and commercial concentrations. They include the city's principal industrial areas, as well as certain retail stores and community services. They are not directly comparable with the major North American type of B centre, which generally consists of a major shopping centre, combined with secondary services and is based on the automobile. In Dodoma, the major emphasis in the B centres is on employment places — manufacturing, processing, warehousing and offices — while the shops are less dominant, because they are provided for in the communities and in the A centre, which are equally accessible by busway.

The B centres are located on the city's busway system, as well as on the arterial roads and, where possible, on the railway.

The National Capital Centre or A centre, is the principal concentration of office buildings, national institutions, hotels and parastata! offices. The design of its buildings, spaces and roadways, and the landscaping and other decorative features will help to give Dodoma its character as a National Capital. This is where visitors and local residents will congregate in the largest numbers, to conduct the country's public business, to celebrate important events and to experience the development of Tanzania.

The size and importance of the centre's buildings and spaces will make it the dominant element of the National Capital and sensitive urban design will make it a visual focal point of the city.

Schools and Other Community Facilities

The Ministry of Education has clearly defined policies relating to the provision of primary schools, secondary schools and Centres of National Education, particularly suited to the needs and life-styles of the Tanzanians.

Operationally, the policy is to provide primary school accommodation for seven class streams, from Standard I to Standard VII. Each 7-ciass stream is to be accommodated in a school with six 45-seat classrooms with Standards I and II sharing one classroom. For the new Capital, it is expected that this standard will change over time and it is recommended that the same physical facilities eventually be used for 40-pupil classes.

Secondary education at present cannot be made available to all under the prevailing economic conditions. As a result, secondary school enrollment is related mainly to the employment requirements projected in the National 5 Year Plans. Because of this, for the near future, secondary school accommodation will be unrelated to community size and location. These schools will be Centres of National Education and will consist of boarding schools, accepting students from all parts of Tanzania. For the distant future, it is possible that secondary or technical schools will become day schools, related to communities and for this eventuality it is suggested that secondary school sites of suitable size should be allocated in each residential community centre.

Other community facilities for which provision must be made include a market for fresh food, shops, post-office and banks, a dispensary or health centre, TANU ward office, police station, court facilities and a fire station.

Transportation within Dodoma

Public Transport, — Bus System Versus Rail System

Recent escalation of fuel costs, coupled with relatively low average annual earnings in Tanzania, reinforce the need for an effective form of public transit system in the new Capital City. A fast, economical and efficient system is required, capable of expansion as the city grows. It will be the principal means of travel for most people between the residential areas, and all other parts of the city.

In the studies for the Capital City, consideration was given to six alternative systems of public transport:

Parallel to studies of these various forms of public transport, additional studies were undertaken of alternative urban growth systems. These parallel studies concluded that the planned integration of public transport shows the greatest operational advantages when related to a linear form of urban growth, in which the transport routes directly link the centres of the residential areas with the main central business districts, the industrial areas, schools and large institutions. This gives the shortest route network possible for a given maximum level of accessibility. In contrast, radial and grid-iron plan forms require about twice the route length for the same land-use areas, for an equivalent passenger accessibility.1

The shorter transport route system within linear development can mean up to twice the frequency of service or the same level of service, with more economical transport operation, compared with that which is possible in a conventional urban plan form. The same basic principles apply, whether the transport system consists of buses on a spinal multi-purpose road, a busway or various forms of rail transit.

A reserved-track busway has the advantage, when related to linear development, of permitting average operating speeds up to twice those achieved by buses on multi-purpose roads. This could result in a further increase in

See Technical Supplement 3, Volume II, Section A, Public Transport and Urban Structure, for a complete anaiysis.

frequency, with the same number of buses in actual operation. In order to maintain a constant overall passenger capacity related to demand, and assuming the same individual passenger journey distance, a saving could be made of half the number of buses of a given size required for a fleet. In addition, the use of articulated buses could result in further savings of up to 33% over the capital cost of standard buses.

The initial capital cost of rail-based rolling stock shows a considerable increase compared with buses. On a per passenger basis, tramcars and light weight rail vehicles cost about 2.5 times the equivalent cost for normal buses, while standard rail rolling stock costs about 3.5 times bus costs on the same basis; however, the service life of rail-based rolling stock is likely to be considerably longer than of buses, but this in turn eventually poses problems related to operating stock of obsolete design. In addition, the cost of the infrastructure is likely to be considerably more expensive for a rail-based system.

A rail system has substantial advantages in using electricity instead of fuel, with the related absence of pollution. However, these advantages have to be balanced against the need to import all the rail rolling stock and a high proportion of the other capital equipment needed for the system. In addition, a rail system is more inflexible in relation to the structural form of urban growth and its programme of implementation.

Based on the foregoing, it is considered that a bus system, in the form of a reserved-track busway, should be the basis of public passenger transport in the new Capital. The advantages of bus operation over rail transport are summarized as follows:

Road System

In the plan for the new National Capital, provision will need to be made for a suitable hierarchy of roads to both complement and support the public transport system. The hierarchy proposed includes major arterial roads, minor arterial roads, processional ways, parkways, major collector roads, minor collector roads, local roads and cul de sacs.

The major road network (major and minor arterial roads, processional ways, and parkways), will be determined by the proposed linear form of the future City, and the concept that major roads should not pass through residential communities; and by the two existing trunk roads, (the Morogoro-Bahi Road and the Great North Road), both of which will require substantial adjustment within the existing town, to provide proper continuity to the trunk road system.

The role of this major road network will be to permit vehicular traffic to flow freely and safely to all parts of the City, essentially unimpeded by local traffic and with a minimum of conflict with other modes. The local road network (major and minor collector roads, local roads and cul de sacs) will provide internal access and circulation for all land use elements, such as residential communities and industrial areas.

The construction of all roads, particularly major and minor arterials, processional ways and parkways should be carefully staged, with adequate reserves provided for future widening as traffic volumes increase. All major roads, and major collector roads should have bitumenised surfaces, while other roads should have bitumen, gravel or earth, depending on their location. Local materials should be used wherever possible.

On the cost side, the proposed linear form of urban structure results in a much shorter road network for given levels of accessibility, when compared with grid-iron or radial city patterns. Furthermore, fewer expensive interchanges and intersections are required, and in addition to reducing costs, this will result in a smoother flow of traffic.

In the linear form of urban growth proposed for Dodoma, the ultimate provision has been to provide major roads at approximately 2 or A kilometre centres, which coincides with current practice in North America and Europe. Initially however, and possibly well into the future, because of anticipated low vehicle ownership rates, the proposed double tiered growth system could be easily served by a single major road (instead of three), creating substantial savings in infrastructure costs.

Regional Transportation Facilities

Dodoma came into existence as a town because it was at a crossroads in the nation's communications network. It is still located at a vital point in the railway system from Dar es Salaam to Lakes Tanganyika and Victoria, and on the road system from Arusha to Iringa and Mbeya, and it is connected by air to other main centres in Tanzania.

Many of the building materials, machinery and consumer goods come into the region by rail and this situation is likely to continue. In fact, a high proportion of the building materials necessary for construction of the new city will have to come in by rail in the early years. In the design of the new Capital, therefore, provision will have to be made for a new railway station, as well as for railway yards which should be located within, or adjacent to industrial areas.

The main road from Dar es Salaam is also of great importance, but its present condition is a . seriously limiting factor in its value as a carrier of goods and people to and from the region. It should be paved as soon as possible from Morogoro to Dodoma. The roads to the north and south are also important and will become increasingly in need of improvement as the new city develops.

The present airport at Dodoma is inadequate for the growing traffic. Limited improvements now under construction will enable only small twin engine aircraft to visit the capital. The enlargement of the airport beyond the present minor improvements is not possible due to existing residential building development and a new site will be essential.

A new airport site must be found on reasonably level ground with good air approaches from several directions and it must be convenient to the new Capital. The airport must be sufficient in size to serve the needs of both the Capital and of a wider region which comprises a major portion of central Tanzania.

Open Space System

The open spaces of the city will become one of the most dominant components of the new National Capital. They will perform many vital functions such as recreation, conservation of natural resources, agriculture, drainage and the movement of people. They will greatly contribute to the Capital's urban design qualities.

The open spaces are much more than a series of parks, playgrounds and sports fields. They are conceived and laid out as a hierarchical system, ranging from the garden of a house and individual shambas, to the great central park and indeed, to the agricultural areas and wildlife preserves in the region. All these spaces are linked together into a unified urban totality.

The proposed open space system is therefore made up of two basic components; nodes, which are the larger open areas such as playing fields and parks; and linkages such as pedestrian walkways and bicycle ways. Functionally, the nodes are both active and passive areas, while the linkages are almost completely active as they represent the paths of movement from one node to another.

The nodes range in size from the individual housing unit, and the small TANU cell meeting area, through playgrounds, neighbourhood play and sports areas, and community parks, to the recreational, agricultural conservation areas around the communities. The linkages between these various nodes are formed by surface drainage courses, bicycle and walkways, malls, streets, roads and highways, and by visual effects of building siting, tree massing and natural topographic features such as the Itega, Mlimwa, and Imagi inselbergs.

The open space system will simultaneously act as a buffer between and a separator of major urban areas, to prevent the sprawling, monolithic mass which characterizes so many of the world's cities. Open land surrounds and thereby defines the residential communities; it forms a visual and noise buffer between houses and industries; it penetrates neighbourhoods and employment areas to bring the country to the city; and open areas form a setting for important buildings so that one can appreciate their architectural design.

The design of the open space system must be carefully related to the characteristics of the land — soil types, rock outcrops, slopes and drainage patterns, vegetation and climate. Arable soils must be used as shambas, natural drainage channels must be preserved to permit the impoundment of rain water, and steep or rocky areas must be protected from erosion.

The visual qualities of the National Capital's open space system must be among the most important design criteria. Views of the surrounding hills, inselbergs and plains must be protected and enhanced and the city must blend into, not conflict with the countryside. The created land forms must have the qualities of the African landscape and the trees and other plant material must help to maintain the link between the city and the rural areas of Tanzania.

Water Supply and Other Public Utilities

A good piped water supply is essential for any form of urban development. Supply sources at the Makutapora Basin are adequate at present; however, extensive new pipelines and pumping facilities will be necessary to transport sufficient water to the new Capital. Other sources of supply may be needed to provide enough water to meet the future demands of the city and the development of these new sources will have to be carefully programmed in relation to projected requirements. The basic objective and design parameter should be to connect all properties used for human occupancy to the water distribution system. During the initial period, stand pipes could be used to serve groups of properties.

In addition to water supply, provision will have to be made for other essential services such as sewage disposal and surface water drainage facilities in sufficient quality and scale to serve the National Capital. All areas which are to be developed for urban purposes should be served by foul sewers. Construction of foul sewers should be phased in relation to a practical and economic overall development programme.

Storm or surface water drainage should be by means of sewers in densely developed urban areas. In other areas, surface water run-off can be handled by drainage channels, leading to natural watercourses.

A major aspect that must be considered in the design and implementation of all water treatment, storm and surface drainage, and irrigation projects is the disease called Schistosomiasis, also known as Bilharziasis. (For recommended precautions to minimize the spread of this disease, see Technical Supplement 5, Public Services).

During the period when concept designs for the new capital were being introduced, an integral part of the work was the design and testing of schemes for infrastructure development which included water distribution, sanitary sewers, storm drainage, roads and power.

The work carried out at that time included the preparation of functional designs and costing in order to arrive at an optimum scheme. As an example, the servicing cost for a community the size of the proposed for Kikuyu (28,000 people) amounted to approximately 30% less than the cost of an urban development area for the same population in North America. The savings in cost were attributed to lower labour costs and lower standard of servicing requirements considered appropriate for the conditions in Kikuyu (traffic volumes, rainfall, climate).

Summary

The function of the new Capital in Dodorna is to provide the seat of Government, located at a point which is accessible to all parts of the country. In order to achieve this, it will be necessary to provide urban growth facilities which will enable manufacturing and distributing industries to flourish, and to provide a marketing centre for a vastly improved agricultural hinterland. More specifically, it will require:

—the provision of space for a multitude of land uses, in proper relationship one to another including residential, commercial, industrial, open space and government uses, sufficient to accommodate the anticipated population growth;

— the provision of an efficient and economical public transportation system;

— the economic provision of basic infrastructure elements, particularly water supply and sewage disposal;

— the improvement of existing transportation links with the region and the country, including a new airport site, improved roads and improved railway facilities;

— the creation of a physical and functional relationship between the Capital and its surrounding region; and

— the creation of an appropriate National Capital Image which will express clearly and boldly the aims and aspirations of the Tanzanian people.

The Residential Community Prototype

Because the development of an efficient and economical public transportation system was one of the principal parameters for the preparation of the National Capital Master Plan, this implies that each dwelling must be within reasonable walking distance of a bus stop. Therefore, the design of the prototype of the city's residential communities had to take this criterion as one of its major points of departure.

In European cities, where the bus or electric streetcar forms the main public transportation system, authorities recommend that walking distances to the stops should not exceed 500 metres, subject to adjustments for local terrain and weather conditions, to ensure convenience and comfort. In Dodoma, however, where the weather is excellent and where most people are generally used to walking relatively long distances, a maximum walking distance of one kilometre, or 10 minutes, is considered to be acceptable. A residential community confined to an area within one kilometre radius around a bus stop would, therefore, meet the requirement of easy access from each dwelling to the public transportation system.

figure2 Careful research and experimentation with respect to housing types, density patterns, community facilities, and open space and movement systems eventually led to a prototype residential community with an average population of 28,000 divided into four neighbourhoods of 7,000 residents each. The community is entirely surrounded by permanent open spaces used for recreation, the preservation of natural features, or agriculture, ensuring that it will remain a distinct unit in the city, with its own social and environmental identity and characteristics.

One of the primary objectives, with respect to arrival at the community and neighbourhood population sizes was to ensure a housing pattern of suitable density. In view of the life styles of Dodoma's future citizens, many of whom will have a rural background, a high-density residential environment, with its implications of various multiple housing forms and/or small areas of private outdoor space, would not be acceptable. At the same time, however, the provision of urban services — water supply, sewage collection, streets and utilities — must be as economical as possible, requiring a compact residential pattern.

figure3 The determination of a community population size of 28,000 people was the result of the following three major factors:

— a maximum walking distance of 1 km, or 10 minutes walking time, from the farthest dwelling to the bus stop;

— a housing pattern at the established densities in which one-storey dwellings predominate, each with its own private outdoor area and adequate public open space; and

— minimum cost of urban services and facilities, within acceptable limits of quality and quantity for the National Capital.

figure4 Each residential community contains a centre which functions as the focus for all day-to-day community activities; shopping, socia! and cultural interaction, employment, post-primary education and so on. The community's movement systems, footpaths, bicycleways and streets, converge upon this centre and particularly upon the city bus stop, which is as close as possible to the community's geographic mid-point.

The Community is bisected by the busway — the road for the exclusive use of the public transportation system. Intra-community bicycle and walkways parallel the busway along landscaped routes, creating a green movement corridor through each community.

The city's arterial road system will run outside the community, generally parallel to the busway; major collector streets will connect these arterials with the neighbourhoods and the community centre. A system of local streets, many of which are cul-de-sacs, lead into the neighbourhoods and provide vehicular access to all dwellings.

figure5 The community's four neighbourhoods are located in the quadrants formed by the busway and the collector streets. Each neighbourhood is a residential area containing a range of facilities, such as three primary schools with nurseries, sports and playgrounds, small shops or dukas, religious buildings and so on. A comprehensive open space system permeates all parts of the neighbourhood, ensuring that all dwellings are very closely related to the land; gardens or shambas, treed areas, small parks and playgrounds, all inter-connected by a system of bicycle and walkways which are separated from the streets.

The basic housing unit of the residential community is the TANU housing cell, a group of about ten dwellings or about fifty persons, forming the political and social grass-roots unit in Tanzania. The houses in each cell are grouped around a small communal open space with one or more trees. These provide the opportunity for daily social contact, avoiding the alienation created by many city environments, and providing an informal forum for the discussion of matters of common interest and concern. Each neighbourhood contains a broad range of house types; detached and semi-detached dwellings, townhouses and small apartment buildings, with the higher density units generally close to, or inside, the community centre. Each dwelling is directly related to an area of open space for the family's private use as a garden, many of which will in turn be adjacent to the public open space system. The average gross density of a residential community will be about 80 to 90 persons per hectare or about 15 dwelling units per hectare.

In summary then, the residential communities are designed to become relatively small (28,000 residents), discrete living environments, each defined by the surrounding open spaces. Each community will have its own identity, which will minimize the serious problem in other large cities of the individual or small group being swallowed by the urban mass, with resulting loss of human dignity and individual expression of lifestyles. Each community is a small town with its own downtown services facilities and employment opportunities, where many of its residents will work. Other residents will commute daily from their town to other parts of the city via the busway.



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